Rabies vaccine and human rabies immunoglobulin
It is important that anyone who has potentially been exposed to rabies virus or Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) be
Covered against these diseases through the appropriate use of rabies vaccine and human rabies
Immunoglobulin (HRIG). Potential exposure occurs when people are bitten or scratched by animals that may be
Infected, or when animals that may be infected lick a person’s broken skin or mucous membranes (eyes, nose or
If you have had this type of contact with:
Bats in Australia or anywhere else in the world, OR
Any land dwelling mammal in any u. s. a. where rabies is known to be a risk, you should clean the point of
Contact as defined below and seek immediate medical attention.
Thoroughly clean the wound site with soap and water for 5 minutes. If available, an antiseptic that kills viruses
Such as povidone-iodine, iodine tincture, aqueous iodine answer or alcohol (ethanol) should be applied after
Washing. If exposed, mucous membranes such as eyes, nose or mouth should be flushed well with water. It is
Critical to observe these processes with appropriate treatment with rabies vaccine and HRIG.
What is the difference between rabies vaccine and HRIG?
A direction of rabies vaccines (given into the shoulder muscle) works to develop long term immunity, but this may
Take seven days to start providing protection. For this reason, HRIG is usually given into the wound or site of
Damage to provide immediate short term protection while the rabies vaccines start to work. Long term protection is
Critical as rabies infection can take a long time to develop. No longer had everyone potentially exposed to rabies or ABLV
Will be advised to have HRIG. For example, HRIG is generally not required for people who have been previously
Vaccinated against rabies. When recommended, it is important to have the HRIG as well as the vaccine to ensure
Complete protection against rabies or ABLV.
How many doses of rabies vaccine are needed following a bite or scratch by a potentially infected?
A course of 4 doses is generally needed over a period of one month (0, 3, 7, 14 days). But, an additional
5th dose is needed at 30 days for anyone who has a weakened immune system. The injections are given in the
Muscle of the upper arm.
Are there any side effects?
All medicines and vaccines have side effects. For this vaccine, approximately 20% of people complain of redness at the
Injection site or a sore arm. Other side effects include fever (8%), headache (5%), and stomach upset (5%), muscle
Aches and pains (5%) and a rash (5%).
A very small minority of people (1 in 10,000) can suffer a severe allergic reaction, with symptoms that might
Include difficulty breathing and swelling of the throat. This is precisely the same reaction that happens in some
People who are allergic to bee stings or peanuts. Your doctor will ask you to stay in the clinic for about 20 mins
After the rabies vaccination to ensure you are not one of those very few people who are allergic to the rabies
Vaccine. If this reaction occurs, it is usually easily treated at the clinic.
Throughout the world, 5 cases of inflammation of the brain have been reported among the millions of people
Who have been given rabies vaccine? Those cases have no longer been linked with certainty to the vaccine.
Ought to the vaccinations be stopped if there are facet results?
The disease caused via rabies and ABLV is lethal and the recommended vaccination schedule should be
Persisted unless there is a severe allergic reaction. If a severe allergic reaction occurs, expert advice should.
Be sought and the risk of developing infection must be carefully considered before deciding to discontinue the
Are there any people who should not have the vaccine for medical reasons?
No. The disease caused via rabies and ABLV infection is lethal, so all people bitten or scratched by a potentially
Infected animal have to have the vaccine. If your doctor thinks there is a hazard of a severe allergic response, then
Specialist advice should be sought.
What about women who are pregnant or breast feeding?
There is no evidence that the vaccine can harm unborn babies. Follow up of 200 pregnant women in Thailand
Located that the vaccine was safe. It is not known if the vaccine is secreted in human milk, however any vaccine present
In breast milk have to now not have harmful effects.
What should you do if you experience vaccine aspect results?
For mild aspect effects such as headache, muscle soreness or fever, paracetamol might also be taken every four hours
Up to a maximum for adults of eight 500 mg drugs in 24 hours. If fever persists or you are concerned about your
Condition consult your doctor.
When and wherein is human rabies immunoglobulin (HRIG) given?
While advocated, HRIG is usually given with the first dose of the vaccine. It presents immunity till the
Vaccine starts to shield at approximately day 7. It is most well-known that as much as possible of the HRIG is injected in and around the wound site.
How is HRIG prepared?
It is prepared from the plasma of donated human blood.
Are there any facet outcomes of HRIG?
Ache and discomfort can arise at the injection site. Fever and chills sometimes occur. As with all medicines,
Acute severe allergic reactions arise very hardly ever. Because HRIG is prepared from human blood, the danger of
Transmitting blood-borne infections cannot be truely excluded. This chance additionally applies to as yet unknown
Diseases. The risk of spreading known diseases is reduced during the production of HRIG by screening blood
donors, via screening all donated blood for HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C, and by further processing of the
Blood to extract the immunoglobulins. There have been no reviews in Australia of transmission of any blood borne
Sickness in people who have received HRIG.
Are there any other adverse effects of HRIG?
Administration of immunoglobulin may intrude with the effectiveness of a few vaccines (egg. measles, mumps,
Rubella and chickenpox vaccines). You should tell your doctor if you have had one of these vaccinations in the two
Weeks before the HRIG injection. It may be necessary for you to be re-vaccinated (with measles, mumps, and rubella
Or chickenpox vaccines) four months after the dose of HRIG.
You ought to wait four months after the immunoglobulin before having sure vaccines (eg. measles, mumps,
Rubella and chickenpox). Otherwise these vaccines may not work.